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Author: Safety Guide

Heat-Wave – Dos & Don’ts

Heat-Wave – Dos & Don’ts

Heat Wave conditions can result in physiological strain, which could even result in death.  To minimize the impact during the heat wave and to prevent serious ailment or death because of heat stroke, the following measures are useful:


  • Listen to Radio, watch TV, read Newspaper for local weather forecasts to know if a heat wave is on the way.
  • Drink sufficient water and as often as possible, even if not thirsty.
  • Wear lightweight, light-coloured, loose fitting and porous cotton clothes.  Use protective goggles, umbrella, pagdi / dupatta / hat, shoes or chappals while going out if sun.
  • While travelling, carry water with you.
  • If you work outside, use a hat or an umbrella and also use a damp cloth on your head, neck, face & limbs.
  • Use ORS (Oral Rehydration Solution), homemade drinks like lassi, lemon water, buttermilk etc. which help to rehydrate the body.
  • Keep animals in shade and give them plenty of water to drink.
  • Recognise the signs of heat stroke, heat rash or heat cramps, such as weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, sweating and seizures.  If you feel faint or ill, see a doctor immediately.
  • Keep your home cool. Use curtains, shutters or sunshades during day. Open windows at night.
  • Use fans, damp clothing and take bath in cold water frequently.
  • Provide cool drinking water near work place.
  • Caution workers to avoid direct sunlight.
  • Schedule strenuous jobs to cooler times of the day.
  • Increase the frequency and length of rest breaks for outdoor activities.
  • Pregnant workers and workers with a medical condition should be given additional attention.


  • Do not leave children or pets in parked vehicles.
  • Avoid going out in the sun, especially between 12:00 noon and 3:00 p.m.
  • Avoid wearing dark, heavy or tight clothing.
  • Avoid high-protein food and do not eat stale food.
  • Avoid strenuous activities when the outside temperature is high.
  • Avoid cooking during peak hours. Open doors and windows to ventilate cooking area adequately.
  • Avoid alcohol, team coffee and carbonated soft drinks, which dehydrate the body.

Tips to Preserve your Jewellery

Tips to Preserve your Jewellery

By following some simple tips, your jewellery can be preserved for generations.

  • Remove your jewellery before bathing. Accumulated soap diminishes gold’s colour and lusture.
  • After wearing an ornament, wipe it gently with a cotton cloth dabbed with lukewarm water.
  • Avoid washing your jewellery in a wash basin. You might wash away small, loosely-set stones or parts of your ornament.
  • Gently use a toothbrush or any other soft object to remove visible dirt accumulations.
  • Chlorine can damage your ornaments. So remember to remove all your ornaments before going for a swim.
  • Makeup, hair spray and perfumes cause dullness and loss of colour. So always wear your ornaments last.
  • Keep your jewellery away from sharp objects. Also, remove them while doing physical activities or any other household chore.
  • Grease is harmful to jewellery. Remove it by gently rubbing the surface with alcohol.
  • Get your jewellery polished every six months. When you do, approach a jeweler you can trust.

Measures in Case of a Gas Leak

Measures in Case of a Gas Leak

Precautionary measures in case of Gas Leak

  • Don’t Smoke or strike a match
  • Don’t turn on light
  • Don’t operate any electrical appliance
  • Don’t use a lighter
  • Don’t use a cell phone or telephone
  • Don’t start any vehicle in the area of a plausible gas leak
  • Alert others and leave immediately
  • Open doors and windows
  • Call the fire department, cops or gas company from another location

Helping Burn Victims

  • Run cool, not cold water over the burnt area
  • Don’t immerse severe burns in cold water as it can cause shock
  • Don’t remove clothing in case of severe burn injuries
  • Make sure the victim is not in contact with inflammatory materials, smoke or heat
  • If any material is stuck to the skin, cool the area with cool water and seek medical attention
  • Jewellery and metal objects need to be removed
  • Do not apply ice directly
  • Do not apply cream, butter, ointments or toothpaste
  • Do not touch or break any blisters
  • Cover with a clean, dry cloth without putting pressure on the affected area
  • Face, hands, feet, major joints or genital area is considered serious
  • Elevate the burned body part

Lights, Sound, Chemical Reaction

Lights, Sound, Chemical Reaction

Types of Firecrackers and their Composition


These include atom bombs, sutli bomb and even a chain or a string of a thousand crackers.

Chemicals: A black powder, also known as gun powder, which contain charcoal, sulphur and potassium nitrate. A tight paper tube with a fuse is used to light the powder.

Metal: A composition used in a firecracker might have aluminum instead of or in addition to charcoal to brighten the explosion

Gun Powder = Charcoal + Potassium nitrate + Sulphur


These include all types of rockets or those that shoot up in the air and then explode.

Chemicals: These, too, contain the black powder which include charcoal, sulphur, potassium nitrate.

Metal: Aluminium


These include all fireworks that burn up to a minute and produce extremely bright and showery light such as anar, chakri and sparklers.

Chemicals: These include charcoal, sulphur, aluminum perchlorate or barium nitrate. A variety of chemicals are added to produce vibrant colours.

Metal:  Iron or steel powder. Also, it is very common for fireworks to contain aluminum zinc or magnesium dust to create bright, shimmering sparks.

Health Hazards of Chemicals and Metals Present in Firecrackers

ALUMINIUM: High levels could cause toxicity.  People with kidney problems and older people are more vulnerable.

Effects: It can cause skeletal and neuro-muscular problems, apart from weaknewss, bone pain, digestive problems, confusion, headache, heartburn, emotional instability, disturbed sleep.

SULPHUR DIOXIDE: Exposure to very high levels can be life-threatening.

Effects: It can cause heart, eye, hearing, liver and kidney damage, stomach disorder, suffocation and disturb blood circulation.

POTASSIUM NITRATE: It can irritate respiratory track.

Effects: It can cause shortness of breath, gastric and stomach pain, dizziness, bloody diarrhea, convulsions, mental impairment, redness or itching of skin or eyes.

BARIUM: Certain compounds like barium acetate are highly poisonous.

Effects: Mild exposure can cause muscle fatigue or weakness, difficulty in breathing, blood pressure changes, facial numbness, gastrointestinal disorders, vomiting, diarrhea and cramps.

Colours of Hazard

Colours of Hazard

Chemicals compounds used as colourants in fireworks, and their impact on health.

Blazing Reds Lithium Compounds Toxic, irritating fumes when burnt
Glittering Greens Barium Nitrate Can irritate respiratory tract, have possible radioactive fallout
Brilliant Whites Aluminium Contact dermatitis, bio-accumulation
Blues Copper Compounds Cancer risk, bio-accumulation
Glitters Effects Antimony sulphide Toxic smoke, possible carcinogen


Sulphur Dioxide Acid rain
Potassium Nitrate Carcinogenic, toxic dust
Ammonium / Potassium Perchlorate Contaminate ground water, may cause thyroid problems
Lead Dioxide / Nitrate / Chloride Development danger for unborn children, poisonous
Mercury Toxic heavy metal, bio-accumulation
Nitric Oxide Toxic, if inhaled
Nitrogen Dioxide Highly toxic, if inhaled
Ozone Greenhouse Gas
Strontium Compounds Can replace calcium in body, toxic

How a specific exploding firework performs depends on how its four primary ingredients – oxidizer, fuel, colouring agents, and binder – combine.

Burning requires oxygen – the oxidisers in fireworks are chemicals that release oxygen to allow the explosion to take place. Nitrates, chlorates and perchlorates are used most commonly.