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Author: Safety Guide

Lights, Sound, Chemical Reaction

Lights, Sound, Chemical Reaction

Types of Firecrackers and their Composition


These include atom bombs, sutli bomb and even a chain or a string of a thousand crackers.

Chemicals: A black powder, also known as gun powder, which contain charcoal, sulphur and potassium nitrate. A tight paper tube with a fuse is used to light the powder.

Metal: A composition used in a firecracker might have aluminum instead of or in addition to charcoal to brighten the explosion

Gun Powder = Charcoal + Potassium nitrate + Sulphur


These include all types of rockets or those that shoot up in the air and then explode.

Chemicals: These, too, contain the black powder which include charcoal, sulphur, potassium nitrate.

Metal: Aluminium


These include all fireworks that burn up to a minute and produce extremely bright and showery light such as anar, chakri and sparklers.

Chemicals: These include charcoal, sulphur, aluminum perchlorate or barium nitrate. A variety of chemicals are added to produce vibrant colours.

Metal:  Iron or steel powder. Also, it is very common for fireworks to contain aluminum zinc or magnesium dust to create bright, shimmering sparks.

Health Hazards of Chemicals and Metals Present in Firecrackers

ALUMINIUM: High levels could cause toxicity.  People with kidney problems and older people are more vulnerable.

Effects: It can cause skeletal and neuro-muscular problems, apart from weaknewss, bone pain, digestive problems, confusion, headache, heartburn, emotional instability, disturbed sleep.

SULPHUR DIOXIDE: Exposure to very high levels can be life-threatening.

Effects: It can cause heart, eye, hearing, liver and kidney damage, stomach disorder, suffocation and disturb blood circulation.

POTASSIUM NITRATE: It can irritate respiratory track.

Effects: It can cause shortness of breath, gastric and stomach pain, dizziness, bloody diarrhea, convulsions, mental impairment, redness or itching of skin or eyes.

BARIUM: Certain compounds like barium acetate are highly poisonous.

Effects: Mild exposure can cause muscle fatigue or weakness, difficulty in breathing, blood pressure changes, facial numbness, gastrointestinal disorders, vomiting, diarrhea and cramps.

Colours of Hazard

Colours of Hazard

Chemicals compounds used as colourants in fireworks, and their impact on health.

Blazing Reds Lithium Compounds Toxic, irritating fumes when burnt
Glittering Greens Barium Nitrate Can irritate respiratory tract, have possible radioactive fallout
Brilliant Whites Aluminium Contact dermatitis, bio-accumulation
Blues Copper Compounds Cancer risk, bio-accumulation
Glitters Effects Antimony sulphide Toxic smoke, possible carcinogen


Sulphur Dioxide Acid rain
Potassium Nitrate Carcinogenic, toxic dust
Ammonium / Potassium Perchlorate Contaminate ground water, may cause thyroid problems
Lead Dioxide / Nitrate / Chloride Development danger for unborn children, poisonous
Mercury Toxic heavy metal, bio-accumulation
Nitric Oxide Toxic, if inhaled
Nitrogen Dioxide Highly toxic, if inhaled
Ozone Greenhouse Gas
Strontium Compounds Can replace calcium in body, toxic

How a specific exploding firework performs depends on how its four primary ingredients – oxidizer, fuel, colouring agents, and binder – combine.

Burning requires oxygen – the oxidisers in fireworks are chemicals that release oxygen to allow the explosion to take place. Nitrates, chlorates and perchlorates are used most commonly.

Foreign Object in The Eye

Foreign Object in The Eye

Any material such as dust, sand or paint that gets into the eye is called a foreign body. Foreign bodies fall into two categories.

  • Superficial Foreign Bodies: these stick to the front of the eye or get trapped under one of the eyelids, but do not enter the eye.
  • Penetrating Foreign Bodies: these penetrate the outer layer of the eye and enter the eye.

Is It Serious?
Superficial foreign bodies are not usually serious.

A penetrating eye injury can be extremely serious – it may lead to blindness if not detected and treated promptly. Even if treated appropriately, it may cause loss of vision.

Care For The Eye

Small Superficial foreign bodies:

  • Begin by rinsing your eye with a saline solution (the same solution used to rinse contact lenses). Tap water or distilled water may be used if no saline solution is available.
  • A water fountain makes a great eye wash. Just lean over the fountain, turn on the water, and keep your eye open.
  • Hold a glass of water to your eye and tip your head back or to a side. Flush the eye with a stream of water. Do this many times.
  • If you are near a shower, get in and put your eye under the running water.
  • If you are working outside, a garden hose running at a very modest flow will work.
  • If washing out your eye is not successful, the object can usually be removed with the tip of a tissue or a cotton swab. Pull back the eyelid by pulling down on the bottom edge of the lower lid or by pulling up on the upper edge of the upper lid. Look up when evaluating for a foreign body under the lower lid. Look down when evaluating for a foreign body under the upper lid. You will often need someone to help you in this case. Be very careful not to scrape the tissue or the cotton swab across your cornea, the clear dome over the iris.

For large foreign bodies or for embedded bodies (even if they are very small), do not attempt to remove them at home. See a medical professional immediately. Before going to the doctor, secure the eye and the object in place e,g, if a pencil has penetrated the eye, secure it with a paper cup. Do not move the eye unnecessarily.

Heart Problem Diagnose & Treatment Techniques

Heart Problem Diagnose & Treatment Techniques

  • Coronary Angiography: Most reliable test to identify presence or absence and extent of coronary artery disease and helps in deciding the treatment options.
    Coronary Angiography is less than 10 minutes procedure requiring no more than 4 hours hospital stay.
  • Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA):
    1. Primary Angioplasty (angioplasty during heart attack) is the best treatment and life saving procedure for the treatment of heart attack.
    2. Angioplasty is unstable angina reduces mortality and subsequent MI risk in unstable angina patients when compared to medical therapy.
    3. Elective angioplasty in stable angina. When medical treatment fails in stable Angina, angioplasty helps is relieving the anginal symptoms.
  • Device Implantation:
    1. Pacemaker implantation is the only treatment for symptomatic bradycardia and complete heart block.
    2. With newer MRI safe pacemakers, MRI can also be performed.
    3. Cardiac Re-synchronization therapy (Bi-ventricular Pacing) helps to improve left ventricular ejection fraction and symptom class in patients of dilated cardiomyopathy.
    4. Automatic Implantable Cardioverter Defilrillator (AICD) – is implanted to treat tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF)
  • Device Closure: Percutaneous device closure is the non-surgical procedure for the treatment of ASD, VSD & PDA in selected patients of these birth defects.
  • Valvuloplasty
    1. BMV (Balloon Mitral Valvoplasty) is the procedure of choice in selected patients of severe mitral stenosis.
    2. Balloon valvopasty is also done in congenital aortic and pulmonary valve stenosis.

Test to Identify Plastic Rice

Test to Identify Plastic Rice

To ensure that you do not become a victim of the harmful product, there are six methods on how to identify plastic rice from the ordinary one

  • Boiling Test. When you are boiling the rice, observe it carefully. If it begins to form a thick layer at the top of your saucepan, then it is a straight sign of plastic rice.
  • Water Test. Take a glass of cold water and pour a tablespoon of raw rice in it. Then mix it thoroughly. You will immediately know that you have an ordinary rice if it falls on the bottom. At the same time, plastic rice will stay on the top.
  • Pound Test. Pound a few grains of your rice with the help of a pestle and mortar. Then look at the color of the powder. If it has a white color, then you deal with an ordinary rice. If the color is yellow, then it is a fake rice.
  • Fire Test. Take a bit of rice and burn it with a lighter. Fake rice will always smell like burnt plastic.
  • Hot Oil Test. Boil some oil and drop some rice into it. Plastic rice will always stick at the bottom of the saucepan.
  • Mold Test. Boil a handful of rice. Put it for two or three days in a warm place. If there is no mold during that time, your rice is definitely fake. The reason is very simple: neither temperature nor weather affects the plastic.